principles and methods
1. Calculation principles
For the calculation of the various indicators in the indicator system, we
score according to categories of a particular university and with each category
we set score relative to the highest scored university. In the scoring process,
the highest scored university takes the score of 100, while the final score
of the other university in this category is the relative percentage of its
absolute score divides the highest absolute score. This principle is applied
in each individual indicator.
2. Computing methods
(1) About freshmen quality ranking
Freshmen quality is ranked by the entrance scores of national university
entrance examination of each university.
Since each province has different scoring methods in the national examination,
so we rank first within each province as each province has the same examination
and grading standard. The examinees are classified into three categories,
i.e. arts/social sciences; science/technology; and others. Arts/social
sciences include: philosophy, law, economics, history, education, literature
and foreign languages; Science/technology include: science, technology,
medical, agriculture, management; the others.
(a) Subjects ranking of each province
The score of 100 is assigned to the school with highest ranking on student
average score in each subject. The score of other university are relative
scores that are scaled accordingly. We use the following formula,
(Student Average score in each subject / Top Student average score in
each subject) * 100
(b) Provincial comprehensive ranking
To set up the average score of each subject and enrolled students total
weighed average as standard; the score of 100 is assigned to the highest,
the score of other schools are relative scores scaled accordingly.
(c) National subject ranking
Subject score within each province and the enrollment total weighed average.
(d) National comprehensive ranking
Subject score within nation and the national enrollment total weighed
(2) About research expenditure
The general principle is to score first according to the separate categories
of arts/social science and science/technology. These separate scores are
then summed up with the weights equal to the percentage of staff in each
category. In each separate score, we consider both expenditure per person
and total expenditure. The reasons for this practice are:
(a) The score of 100 is assigned to the school with highest research expenditure
per person in the general fields of arts and science in order to balance
the expenditure per person in each category.
(b) The score of 100 is assigned to the school with highest research expenditure
in arts/social science and science/technology fields in order to balance
the expenditure in each category and also to avoid the school with relative
high expenditure and with small scale. The total expenditure can tell
the research capacity and also reflect the advantage in multi-subjects
(c) The respective weights of the expenditure per person and total expenditure
in each category are 50%. This approach is adapted from the commonplace
practice in assessing library capacity where a similar set of weights
is used with library capacity per person and total library capacity.
(d) As the percentage of faculty in each general category of subjects
differs from school to school, and as the research expenditure in these
categories differ dramatically, our practice of weighting and adjusting
with the percentage of faculty offers a more objective summary statistics
of the research expenditure for a concerned university.
The detailed steps in our calculation are listed as follows:
a) Compute the expenditure per person in each school with expenditure
data in arts/social sciences;
b) Rank according to the score of expenditure per person;
c) The score of 100 is assigned to the highest ranking school. The other
schools are assigned with the relative scores that are scaled with the
d) Rank the total research expenditure in arts/social sciences;
e) The score of 100 is assigned to the highest ranking school. The other
schools are assigned with the relative scores that are scaled with the
f) The per person score in item 3 times 50%; add the total expenditure
score in item 5 times 50%; to arrive at the final score in research expenditure
( if the highest score is not 100 then we scale up the highest score to
100, and other scores are scaled up accordingly);
g) The same methods were used in scoring with schools in the general category
h) Compute the total number of research staff in science/technology;.
i) The score of expenditure in arts/social sciences times the relevant
staff percentage is added to the score in science/technology times the
concerned staff percentage to arrive at the total research expenditure
of the school;
j) Rank the general score of each school and assign 100 score to the highest
rank, the rest are the percentage of the highest rank;.
(3) About computation of library resource in “facilities and resources”
The library resource is calculated as the sum of library books per student
and the total number of books in the library books with 50% weights. It
is very important for student to have more choices on books, and the total
number of books in the library is of importance..
(4) About computation in “academic achievement”
The score in academic achievement has changed from the method of simple
addition. Instead, proper care has now been taken with regards to the
general categories of arts/social sciences and science/technology. Also,
instead of the aggregate number, we have used the per person number for
all pieces of achievement information.
In particular, we have followed the following steps:
Step I. We use two sub-indicators for respectively “Science/Technology”
and “Arts/Social Science. Numbers with SCI, EI, ISTP, and CSTP are lumped
into the sub-indicator of science/technology; Numbers with SSCI, A &HCI,
and China Social Science Index Database are lumped into the sub-indicator
of arts/social science.
Step II. Compute score in each sub-indicator:
Score in science/technology = SCI * SCI weight + EI * EI weight + ISTP*
ISTP weight + CSTP * CSTP weight
Score in arts/social science = SSCI * SSCI weight + A &HCI * A&HCI
weight + Thesis in China Social Science Index Database * Thesis in China
Social Science Index Database weight
Step III. Compute score per person in each indicator:
Score per person in science/technology = Score in science/technology /
total number of staff in science/technology
Score per person in arts/social science = Score in arts/social science
/ total number of staff in arts/social science
Step IV. Rank the above score accordingly in each sub-indicator.
Step V. To sum up the ranking in each indicator and come up to the total
score in “Academic
Academic Achievements = (Score in Science/Technology * staff total in
Science/Technology / research staff total + Score in Arts/Social Science
* staff total in Arts/Social Science / research staff total ) / research
Step VI. Rank the above score and compute the relative score of each
school accordingly to come up with the final score in Academic Achievements.
This solves partially the “apples and oranges” problem in comparing achievement
in arts/social science and science/technology so that we can make the
ranking more objective..
(5) Student total is the full time students of undergraduates. The non-teachers
of university hospital of medical schools are discarded.
(6) About Teacher/student ratio
When a ratio is too high for schools with too few students, we truncate
the ratio so that 11 would be the highest ratio.